From July 5th – 8th the Sacra Liturgia 2016 conference took place in London. One of the central topics of the conference was the new Divine Worship Missal, with a Mass at Warwick Street and a talk by Monsignor Andrew Burnham, Assistant to the Ordinary, and a member of the Anglicanae Traditiones commission which developed the new liturgy. Here are some excerpts from his talk as published on the facebook page of Sacra Liturgia.
Monsignor Andrew Burnham, Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham
Divine Worship: The Missal and “the liturgical books proper to the Anglican tradition” (Anglicanorum Coetibus, III)
Mgr Andrew Burnham (born 19 March 1948), third Bishop of Ebbsfleet, from 2000 to 2010, was received into the Roman Catholic Church and ordained as a Catholic priest on 15 January 2011 for the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham. Born in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, and brought up at Worksop Priory, and at Southwell Minster, where he was a cathedral chorister, he went on to study music and then theology at New College, Oxford. After a period as a music teacher and freelance musician, he trained for ordination at St Stephen’s House, Oxford. He was ordained in 1983 and served in Southwell diocese as curate of Clifton and Beeston, and, from 1987, as Vicar of Carrington. Serving as a Proctor in Convocation and member of General Synod from 1990 to 2000 he served on the Church of England Liturgical Commission, which at the time was producing Common Worship, the liturgy of the Church of England for the new millennium. In January 1995 he was appointed Vice-Principal of St Stephen’s House, Oxford, where, as well as bringing parochial experience to the teaching of ordinands, he was tutor in liturgy.
On 8 July 2008, he announced his intention to lead groups of clergy and faithful into the full communion of the Catholic Church, and in a column in the Catholic Herald, asked Pope Benedict XVI to provide a way for this to happen. In November 2010, following the publication of Anglicanorum cœtibus, he was one of five Anglican bishops who announced their resignations and their intention to join the proposed Personal Ordinariate in England and Wales and he was received into the Catholic Church at a Mass at Westminster Cathedral on 1 January 2011 and later appointed a Prelate of Honour. He has since served as an Assistant to the Ordinary in the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham and as Parish Priest of East Hendred Catholic Parish, a place with a noble recusant tradition.
Apart from articles and lectures, he compiled A Manual of Anglo-Catholic Devotion, 2001, 2004, and Heaven & Earth in Little Space: The Re-enchantment of Liturgy, 2010. Serving on the Interdicasterial Commission Anglicanæ traditiones, he has been instrumental in the producing of Divine Worship: Occasional Services, 2014, and Divine Worship: The Missal, 2015. He was also the compiler and editor, with Fr Aidan Nichols OP, of The Customary of Our Lady of Walsingham, 2012, which brings together material from the Divine Office in the Anglican tradition and extracts from the English spiritual tradition.
“Without excluding liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite, the Ordinariate has the faculty to celebrate the Holy Eucharist and the other Sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical celebrations according to the liturgical books proper to the Anglican tradition, which have been approved by the Holy See, so as to maintain the liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions of the Anglican Communion within the Catholic Church, as a precious gift nourishing the faith of the members of the Ordinariate and as a treasure to be shared.” (Anglicanorum Cœtibus III)
Neither the ‘Pastoral Provision’ of North America, which was inaugurated in 1980, nor the Ordinariates in Britain, North America, and Australia, which were erected in 2011 and 2012, following the publication of the Apostolic Constitution, Anglicanorum Cœtibus, by
Pope Benedict XVI on 9 November, 2009, amounted to the Uniate concept, discussed by Newman and de Lisle, and regularly raised thereafter in ecumenical dialogue. Nonetheless the Book of Divine Worship fulfilled the criterion of a liturgical book ‘proper to the Anglican tradition’ and ‘approved by the Holy See.’ It remains of interest both for what it included – broadly much of the Prayer Book of the Episcopal Church as used in 1980 – and for what it omitted and excluded. It omitted, for obvious reasons, ‘Episcopal Services’, the reconciliation of penitents, and the anointing of the sick, since, in form, manner, and underlying sacramental theology, the understanding of the Episcopal Church differed from that of the Catholic Church.
The Lectionary for use in the Ordinariates is the Second Typical Edition of the Roman Lectionary, using the inimitable Revised Standard Version of the Bible, Second Catholic Edition. The RSV is not only very much in the English Bible tradition – which, for all its ingenuity, the Jerusalem Bible is not – but avoids the opaqueness of the Authorised Version, especially in the Pauline Epistles. Consonant with the decree Liturgiam authenticam (2001), greater accuracy and clarity is achieved without too much loss of beauty and poetry. Meanwhile the audacious brilliance and dangerous fallibility of dynamic equivalence are largely avoided.
Though the Book of Divine Worship was the lead book for the work of Anglicanæ Traditiones, it is but one of three secondary sources, each drawing upon the distinctive primary source – liturgical texts of the English Reformation. Chief among these Reformation texts is the work of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, compiler of the Prayer Books of 1549 and 1552, whom we have already encountered. Scarcely less important is the Psalter of Myles Coverdale from his Bible Translation of 1535. And then there is the organic evolution of the English Bible, with the work of William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale in the sixteenth century leading to that of Lancelot Andrewes and his committee, which produced the King James Version, in the early seventeenth century. The Personal Ordinariates continue to make use of the public offices of the Anglican Prayer Book tradition – Mattins and Evensong (Morning and Evening Prayer) and the Holy See has issued guidelines for doing so but, to date, no official liturgical book has been issued.
It follows from that that, for Americans, the Book of Divine Worship and the transition to the Ordinariate rites has been an experience of continuity, whereas former Anglicans in the United Kingdom – those belonging to the Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, and Catholics with an Anglican personal history looking on at the Ordinariate liturgy – have been wrestling with liturgical rupture. More likely than not, their experience of eucharistic worship since 1970 had been of a liturgy in modern English – often something similar to, or even identical with, the Novus Ordo. Even when they have stayed within a traditional language culture – which has remained extant amongst a minority – they have found that the editing of texts in the Book of Divine Worship and Divine Worship: The Missal is normally American.
These liturgical books, unofficial though they were, were used in abundance. Much of the missionary work carried out by Anglicans was undertaken by societies with a particular churchmanship, and versions of what was really the Roman Rite were adapted for places as far apart as Zanzibar, with its famous missionary Bishop Frank Weston, and Korea. In these more monolithic ecclesiastical cultures such liturgies as the 1919 Swahili Mass could be authorised.
Anglo-catholic derision is no rare commodity and soft targets such as the ‘Sarumism’ of much English cathedral culture and of publications such as New English Hymnal (1986) is lampooned by Anglo-catholics. As is the whole Common Worship enterprise, most of which took place, appropriately enough, under the chairmanship of the then Bishop of Salisbury. Some of the biting comment is typical of how the British rub along together (a prominent Evangelical, for example, referred to Common Worship as ‘a Laudian takeover’), but it is the stock-in-trade of the Anglo-catholic movement. Meanwhile, scholars will continue to uncover distinctly Sarum traces in the Divine Worship Missal, not least, in an appendix, the Sarum tones for greetings, orations, and preface, as still used by English Anglicans.
Experiencing Divine Worship: the Missal, imaginatively used, might lead one to conclude that, throughout the Roman Rite, the Roman Canon should be used invariably at a solemn mass, the Alternative Eucharistic Prayer at a simple weekday mass; the full Offertory rite at a sung mass, the simpler form at a low mass; versus Dominum at sung mass, versus populum on a more informal occasion. More daring is the juxtaposing of traditional propers (for example, after Trinity) and the three-year lectionary. And perhaps we could see further experiments: at present the restoration of the one-year eucharistic lectionary has been thought a step too far, but, for all but the most assiduous mass attender, it is arguable how successful the three-year Sunday lectionary has been. Annual repetition of Collects, Epistles and Gospels, a feature of traditional Anglican patrimony, builds liturgical memory. As does the use of whole psalms, or sections of psalms, rather than the strange patchwork of responsorial psalmody, whose abbreviations and discontinuities often militate against memorability. Perhaps, in the wake of Divine Worship: The Missal, the minor Propers of the Graduale Romanum and even the one-year eucharistic lectionary, might be fully reintegrated into the Missale Romanum.
P.S. It is interesting to note that in his inaugural talk to the conference, Cardinal Robert Sarah, the Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, actually stated that: “cultures and other Christians bring gifts with them into the Church—the liturgy of the Ordinariates of Anglicans now in full communion with the Church is a beautiful example of this”.