Status: August 8, 2011
THESAURUS of quotations and excerpts on Anglican Patrimony
I have been reflecting on Cardinal Francis George’s comment at the USCCB meeting in Seattle on June 15th, 2011, referring to the ordinariates’ mission to preserve elements of the Anglican tradition, “I’m not sure I’ve ever seen an explanation of what those elements might be.”
Thus I have decided to put together a very non-exhaustive, but hopefully helpful, collection of quotations and excerpts from some of the experts in the field of Anglican tradition and from official documents.
I have made an attempt at putting them into a kind of thematic order, so that they are easier to read consecutively. Should this Thesaurus prove to be of interest, I shall be able to provide updates at suitable intervals and then a consolidated version from time to time.
The letters in bold type before each headline indicate the source and are explained in the list of sources at the end of this “Thesaurus”.
Anyone aware of additional sources, which might fruitfully be included in this “Thesaurus”, is requested please to inform me at firstname.lastname@example.org .
We start with Vatican II:
LG Gifts of Sanctification and Truth outside of the confines of the Catholic Church
The single Church of Christ, which we profess in the Creed as one, holy, catholic and apostolic “subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him. Nevertheless many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside her visible confines. Since these are gifts properly belonging to the Church of Christ, they are forces impelling towards Catholic unity”. Lumen Gentium 8
AC Maintaining the Liturgical, Spiritual and Pastoral Traditions of the Anglican Communion
“Without excluding the liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite, the Ordinariate has the faculty to celebrate the Holy Eucharist and the other Sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical celebrations according to the liturgical books proper to the Anglican tradition, which have been approved by the Holy See, so as to maintain the liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions of the Anglican Communion within the Catholic Church, as a precious gift nourishing the faith of the members of the Ordinariate and as a treasure to be shared. Anglicanorum Coetibus III
AC Seminary Programs – the first mention of the term “Anglican Patrimony”
… “in order to address the particular needs of seminarians of the Ordinariate and formation in Anglican patrimony, the Ordinary may also establish seminary programs or houses of formation which would relate to existing Catholic faculties of theology.” Anglicanorum Coetibus VI §5
GHI Ways in which the Apostolic Constitution GUARANTEES the Safeguarding and Nourishing of the Anglican tradition
“The safeguarding and nourishing of the Anglican tradition is guaranteed”:
- by the concession to the Ordinariate to celebrate the liturgy according to the Anglican liturgical rites (plus Roman Rite)
- by the fact that the Ordinary may determine specific programmes of formation in Anglican patrimony
- by allowing ordination of married Anglican ministers, including bishops, as Catholic priests
- by the possibility of admitting married laymen to priestly formation on a case-by-case basis
- by the authority to erect personal parishes
- by the capacity to receive Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life from Anglicanism or to erect new ones
- by the organisation of the Ordinariate, respecting Anglican synodal tradition, e.g.
- a new Ordinary will be appointed by the Pope from a terna of names presented by the Governing Council
- a Pastoral Council will be obligatory
- the Governing Council will have wider-ranging rights, e.g. to withhold consent, than the Presbyteral Councils and Colleges of Consultors otherwise foreseen in Canon Law.
GHI The Catholic Church recognises the AUTHENTICITY of the Anglican tradition
… “exactly this Anglican tradition – which will be received in its authenticity in the Latin Roman Church – has constituted within Anglicanism precisely one of those gifts of the Church of Christ, which has moved these faithful towards Catholic unity” (cf. LG 8).
B16 The Pope on the Nature of Ecumenism – Unity but not Uniformity
“Ecumenism does not mean what could be called an ecumenism of the return: that is, to deny and to reject one’s own faith history – it does not mean uniformity in all expressions of theology and spirituality, in liturgical forms and in discipline.” Benedict XVI, Source I
GEL There is to be no denial of the past
“So one of the crucial things I always want to emphasise … is that there is to be no denial of the past. The past and what God has done in it is something that he is building on, making it into something better and bigger. There is no question of you denying the Anglican sacraments you have received or the baptism you possess – all these things are God-given. And it is that grace that we build on: it is a going forward, not a looking back.”
LEV Ecumenism is not Uniformity – Anglican traditions are a gift
“It is the hope of the Holy Father … that the Anglican clergy and faithful … will find in this ecumenical structure the opportunity to preserve those Anglican traditions precious to them and consistent with the Catholic faith. Insofar as these traditions express in a distinctive way the faith that is held in common, they are a gift to be shared in the wider Church. The unity of the Church does not require a uniformity that ignores cultural diversity, as the history of Christianity shows.”
B16 The Pope defines the ultimate goal of ecumenical activity / AC is a prophetic gesture
Anglicanorum Coetibus … “should be seen as a prophetic gesture that can contribute positively to the developing relations between Anglicans and Catholics. It helps us to set our sights on the ultimate goal of all ecumenical activity: the restoration of full ecclesial communion in the context of which the mutual exchange of gifts from our respective spiritual patrimonies serves as an enrichment to us all”. Benedict XVI, Source II
LUN Mutual reception
“A key concept in Anglicanorum Coetibus is that of Mutual Reception. Those last five words (in section 3) – ‘a treasure to be shared’ – are of great significance. They indicate clearly that Anglican Patrimony is not some sort of concession for Anglicans to cling to, but a treasure to be shared by the Church. This is a key concept of mutual reception. Here are some of the characteristics of mutual reception.
It requires all parties to move. It … sees us all as pilgrims, all on the move. The more we can share our sense of direction and purpose, the more we can all be one ‘happy band of pilgrims’, with Jesus as our fellow, and Jesus as our head!
It requires us to be clear as to what is essential on our pilgrimage, and why. This is a basic prerequisite of the inclusive approach, which can in no way ‘mean giving up or in any way diminishing the treasures of divine truth that the Church has constantly confessed and taught’.
It requires us ‘to have a predisposition for understanding every person, analyzing every system and recognizing what is right’ in the beliefs of others, acknowledging that the Spirit of truth can and does operate also ‘outside the visible confines of the Mystical Body’. [cf. Redemptor hominis 6]
It requires good will.” LUN, Source I
KAS Ecumenism of common return
“This does not mean that full communion as the goal of the ecumenical way has to be understood simply as the return of separated brothers and Churches to the bosom of the catholic mother Church. The Second Vatican Council overcame this ecumenism of return by an ecumenism of common return, or common conversion to Jesus Christ…
This does not mean the association or insertion of other Christians into a given ‘system’ but mutual enrichment and the fuller expression and realization of the one Church of Jesus Christ in all the Churches and ecclesial communities. The closer we come to Christ in this way the closer we come to each other, in order at the end to be fully one in Christ.”
PP The Pastoral Provision of 1980 foresaw only the retention of Anglican Use liturgy
“The group may retain certain elements of the Anglican liturgy; these are to be determined by a Commission of the Congregation set up for this purpose. Use of these elements will be reserved to the former members of the Anglican Communion. …” Pastoral Provision II. 2) Liturgy
DiN Liturgical group or group for Evangelisation using the Anglican Rite usage?
… it “will be the real payoff as to whether this is going to be purely a liturgical group coming in or this is going to be a group for evangelisation of the world using this important dimension of Anglican Rite usage, and to my mind it remains to be seen if that can happen, but I think that’s the Holy See’s hope in all of this …”
WAR Nature of the structure foreseen by Anglicanorum Coetibus
“The structure envisaged in Anglicanorum Coetibus is not a uniate church. It will be a portion of the Latin Church governed by the canons of the Latin Church, but it will be a portion of the Latin Church which preserves (and we wait to see for how long) certain practices such as married clergy, certain liturgical practices and so forth. But I think it is a more ambitious project than that, because it mentions Houses of Formation for those who are to train within the patrimony. I think it does envisage a reflection on the part of those Anglicans who are attracted by this offer to consider precisely what that patrimony, that way of doing theology, might mean.” WAR, Source II
GAL Definition of Patrimony in the Eastern Code of Canon Law
“It is really to the Eastern Code (of Canon Law) that you have to look to find a juridical formulation of the importance of this type of patrimony. Canon 28 of the Eastern Code tells us “a rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its manner of living the faith is manifested in each Church sui iuris.”
(My comment: This applies by analogy to the Ordinariates, although they do not represent a Rite but a Use within the Roman Rite.)
CBCEW English and Welsh Catholic bishops attempt a first definition of Anglican Patrimony
“It is recognised that the term “Anglican patrimony” is difficult to define but it would include many of the spiritual writings, prayers, hymnody and pastoral practices distinctive to the Anglican tradition …”
BUR Anglican Patrimony includes a Liturgical Tradition
… “whatever it is, ‘Anglican Patrimony’ certainly does include a liturgical tradition, a tradition which is powerfully Benedictine, in its continued celebration of the public office, often within buildings that were abbeys and priories. It is also a tradition which, somewhat self-consciously, has adopted the Eucharist as its mainstay. This we all owe to the Oxford Fathers as much as to the Twentieth Century Liturgical Movement, which has influenced us all.” BUR, Source III
NEWT Anglican Patrimony
“There has been much talk about what these spiritual patrimonies might be: there’s certainly something liturgical … but that liturgical patrimony is more than the words we use. A few months ago I went to talk to a congregation in the North of England considering becoming part of the Ordinariate in the second wave. The Mass was just the straight Roman Rite, but the music, and the serving, and the ceremonial and hymns all meshed together into an act of sublime worship which was intrinsically Anglican.
In my experience much of the Anglican patrimony is quite hard to define. It involves an attitude to mission, which looks out from the gathered congregation; there is order and the beauty of holiness at the heart of worship. There’s a different relationship between the clergy and the laity, particularly related to lay involvement in Church governance (not that I want to reinvent the General Synod again – I certainly don’t) but there is a valid and appropriate involvement of lay people in the organisational, pastoral and missionary work of the Church. Then there is spirituality – not necessarily different from our other Catholic brothers and sisters – but one which perhaps is different in tone and nuance. But most important of all the patrimony that we bring is ourselves, what has made us the Catholic Christians we are today, what’s influenced us on our spiritual journey and deepened our faith in Christ.”
EIS Martha Eischen’s “View from the Pew” – the Beauty of Holiness
For Martha Eischen the Anglican Patrimony, the Anglican Way is above all the expression of the “Beauty of Holiness” (I Chronicles 16:29) – in the place of worship, the pageantry of the liturgy, the hymnody, the sacramentals and the language:
- “When you walk into an Anglican Church, and one in which traditional Catholic worship is practiced, you get a distinct feeling of the presence of the Lord. Indeed He is most likely present in the Blessed Sacrament. Nonetheless, upon entering one is given to silence. One becomes immediately “worshipful” in manner. … Just being there brings you into a sense, however slight, of being one with the company of heaven, for a time. … There is a solemn grandeur that lifts the humble human being out of the hubbub of the world for a brief time and unites him with the hosts of heaven as he worships or simply “abides in the shadow of the Almighty.” Psalm 91:1.”
- “Whether the congregation is small or large, everything is dignified, and reverent as the “Lord of Hosts is with us”. Psalm 46:7. The vestments are rich and beautiful … Then the solemn manner in which sacred ministers and acolytes perform their part in the eternal drama, absolutely contributes to the piety of all. This tone and manner is shared by the congregation, who fully participate in response … – before God, we render, corporately and personally, the awe, reverence, and dignity of our finest worship.”
- “As for receiving communion in one’s hands – The communicant makes a simple, humble “throne” of his hands, whereon is placed the precious Sacrament. From there, the Body untouched is raised to the mouth of the communicant, who declares in heart, “My Lord and my God.” “The King of Glory has come in.” Psalm 24:7.”
- “Probably the most dramatic contribution to the Anglican Patrimony is its hymnody. Magnificent music, sung in the most venerable traditions of choral greatness, shared by a congregation singing to the rafters literally lifts the soul to the heavenly throne.”
- “Such things as bowing the head at Our Lord’s name, making the sign of the cross at timely points of prayer, genuflecting at the Incarnatus in the creed, acknowledging the Lord at the elevation of the Host at the time of consecration – all these “engage” the faithful in the act of worship. … The tone and manner in which we bring ourselves before God – the manner in which we speak, act, dress, and present ourselves before Him – these outward symbols of our identity and attitude encourage our inward disposition of soul. … They help to shape a humble, contrite, awe-inspired heart when we come before Him.”
- “The language of the most widely used prayer books and hymnals in traditional parishes is Elizabethan English. Its formality, poetry, and beauty add a special dignity, and once again reverence, to the order of worship and contribute to the piety of the people.”
“I close these few thoughts by saying that my emphasis is on the expression of the Faith in the Anglican Way, not on the content. It is the expression that is the “glue” that holds together those in the Anglican Patrimony.”
ELT English Catholicism – two parallel developments
Our heritage “… is the distinctive “ethos” of the whole tradition of English Catholicism, from the Romano-British and Irish Christians up to the Reformation. Then we see it continuing is two directions.
First there was the subsequent development of Catholicism in light of the Councils of Trent, Vatican I and Vatican II, first maintained secretly by “recusants” and then by English Catholics of the Roman Rite who received emancipation in 1829. …
At the same time, we look to the parallel development, your heritage which Anglicanorum coetibus recognises, honours and seeks to maintain. Within the diverse structure of the Anglican Settlement, Anglicans with Catholic convictions sought to maintain, enrich or restore continuity, often at great cost. We think of the Caroline divines, Scottish Episcopalians, the Wesleys, and the scholars and heroes of the Oxford Movement: men like Keble and Pusey, priests of the Society of the Holy Cross, valiant men and women who formed religious communities, clergy selflessly committed to serve the poor, bringing them social justice and a vision of the Kingdom through beautiful Catholic worship. Nor let us forget the brilliance of Dom Gregory Dix, Michael Ramsey, C.S. Lewis, Eric Mascall, T.S. Eliot and Dorothy Sayers. All of this heritage can enrich a unity of faith shared by all English-speaking Catholics. The bridge over the Tiber leads to that unity.”
GEL Anglo-Catholics challenge the Church of England to recover her true catholicity
“As Catholic Anglicans, we were not saying that Catholicism was preferable to Anglicanism, we were not denying our Anglican sacramental life, and we were not denying our history. In fact we were attesting to the opposite. The great affirmation of the Oxford Movement, the Tractarian Movement, and the Anglo-Catholic Movement was, of course, to challenge the Church of England to recover her true catholicity, in her worship, her spirituality and in her history. And so the witness of Catholic Anglicans was not asking her to deny anything, but to affirm something that we believed was there but due to historical accident had sadly disappeared from view.”
DUF The ANGLICAN character of Anglo-Catholicism
“What is it that has held and maintained the Anglican character of Anglo-Catholicism?” …
- the use of the Prayer Book … the language and the devotional style that the Prayer Book embodies
- the culture of a married clergy and that very distinctive embedding of Anglican clergy within the wider culture that makes them, in a way that celibate priests usually are not, part of the scenery, part of the fabric, part of the texture of English national life
- the Established Church and the Royal Supremacy
- Choral Evensong
EDW Problem in UK: Many self-defined Anglo-Catholics do not follow the Anglican Way
“The majority of those clergy and congregations that so far have entered the first Ordinariate in England – the motherland of the Anglican Way – use the English translation of the Roman Missal instead of any version of the Book of Common Prayer …”
… “outside England, the classical Prayer Book tradition is very much alive and well”.
LUN Current situation regarding rites in England and Wales
“Today, Church of England clergy of a catholic orientation would, liturgically, fall into three overlapping groups:
- those who use the Roman Rite;
- those whose Rite is Common Worship;
- those who use some version of the 1928/Interim Rite/Series 1 – somewhat loosely described as Prayer Book.
In the Ordinariate 1) and 2) would largely follow the Roman Rite. Group 3 might use the Roman Rite, with a remnant wishing to hold on to a ‘traditional language’ Prayer Book order.” LUN, Source I
DUF How do we preserve the particular Anglican style of worship, if we mainly use the Roman Rite?
… “if a fundamental part of the Catholic Anglican identity has been a particular style of worship shaped by the rhetoric and the rhythms and the thought pattern of the Prayer Book, what happens to that in a community of clergy and laity who mainly use the Roman Rite, as I think many of you do?”
BUR Sense of Communality and Ecumenical Optimism as well as an allergy to C of E modernism caused priests to adopt the Roman liturgy
“Once I was ordained, I found myself, like other priests, increasingly drawn to the sense of communality held and expressed in the Liturgy of the Hours and, of course, the fashion for modernisation and a very real ecumenical optimism about ARCIC made the decision of Anglo-catholics of the day to adopt the vernacular of the Roman Liturgy, for Mass and the Divine Office, despite its discontinuity with the tradition of English liturgical text, entirely understandable.” …
(My comment: Catholicity expressed in uniformity. Noone seems to have foreseen the liturgical generosity of Anglicanorum Coetibus – despite the Pastoral Provision of 1980 in the USA)
“When it comes to modern Anglican liturgical patrimony, Anglo-catholics have their own version of the Nathanael syndrome: ‘Can anything good come out of Church House?’ (cf John 1:46) The answer of course to that is yes – whenever Nazareth is rooted in that which transcends it – and the answer, therefore, is that there may be aspects of modern Anglican liturgical patrimony which are translatable.” BUR, Source II
AND If not the Book of Common Prayer, then at least the English Missal
(writing about England) “Most Anglo-Catholics dislike the BCP either for good doctrinal reasons or for their oikish cultural reasons.
However, there is a way in which the English of the Authorised Version and elements of the BCP could be preserved by letting the new convert body use the English Missal. That would preserve the AV in the Epistle, Gospel and Propers and the BCP in the Creed and Gloria (slightly amended).”
WUE Pessimistic view of the future regarding Anglican Use liturgy
… “the actual liturgical expression is probably going to be less and less accentuated as the time goes on, because many of them already use as the missal at mass, they will use the Roman Missal, or at least some of them. The Anglican Use parishes use the Book of Divine Worship, so will all of these”
LUN Roman Rite plus Anglican tradition liturgy
Lunn suggests the possibility of an alternative Anglican tradition liturgy constituting “an ‘Extraordinary Form’ for the Ordinariate analogous to the ‘Tridentine’ Extraordinary Form in the Roman Rite.” LUN, Source I
(My comment: I am very much in favour of defining an Anglican tradition liturgy for use in the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, but contend that this should be on an equal footing to the Ordinary Roman Form. In any case, this would be the Ordinary Anglican Ritual and not an extraordinary form. Crafting an English-language variant of the Extraordinary Form, e.g. the Sarum Use, would constitute another exercise altogether.)
SAG Use of the English Language
- Emphasis at the Reformation of language “understanded of the people”
- Official Ordinariate texts should therefore be crafted in English or the appropriate vernacular (and presumably not in Latin and translated – my comment)
SAG The Bible in English
- The greatest treasure of the Anglican Tradition has to be the King James (Authorised) Version
- We are in the 400th anniversary year of the AV
- The AV and the RSV should be commended for liturgical use by former Anglicans
EDW Reverence in Public Prayer (Language and Practice)
- Cranmer’s language is reverential
- The language of the BCP and the AV is not “the daily vernacular of the street and the marketplace”
- A more classical form of the vernacular is used, not the contemporary form
- The language was “understanded of the people”, but not that form of language commonly spoken by the people
- We learn reverence by first learning to act and speak reverently.
BUR The Liturgical Anglican Patrimony which Anglo-Catholics can bring to the Ordinariate from the C of E is only the Inherited Liturgical Language
In his book “Heaven and Earth in Little Space” Andrew Burnham, after a comprehensive analysis of eucharistic liturgical tradition in the Anglican Communion and a brief portrayal of current liturgical practice among Anglo-Catholics in the Church of England, concludes that:
… “Anglo-Catholics bring to the table, in terms of texts, only the inherited liturgical language of their tradition”.
He states that this liturgical language reflects in a particular way that “sacred style” which the Instruction of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, “Liturgiam authenticam”, of March 2001, refers to in point 27: “Thus it may happen that a certain manner of speech which has come to be considered somewhat obsolete in daily usage may continue to be maintained in the liturgical context.”
The specific elements of this patrimony which Andrew Burnham identifies and calls “no mean possession” are:
- “Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer and the Litany, complete texts, which have proved their value as vehicles of public worship and which need only a little editing”
- “the Coverdale Psalter, as classical and irreplaceable in its way as the Clementine Vulgate Psalter is in its way”
- “the thesaurus of collects” BUR, Source I
BUR Other Language Patrimony apart from Liturgical Texts
For Andrew Burnham, Anglican liturgical patrimony also includes:
- “the tradition of English Bible translation of which the Revised Standard Version is the finest example, that is, if criteria of accuracy, clarity, grandeur, meaning, and style are allowed to topple the Authorized Version from its perch” In his notes, Andrew Burnham points out that “The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible does not conform to the conventions of Liturgiam authenticam, … for instance using inclusive language where the Greek of the New Testament does not”
- “the tradition of hymnody”
- and (although he notes that “it does not meet the Tridentine criterion of two centuries’ usage”) “the rich quarry of texts which Anglicanism has acquired”. Here he lists:
– My God, my Glory (1954)
– the work of Eric Milner-White (1884-1963)
– some “felicitous adaptations of Prayer Book material for wedding and funeral services” (published in the 1928 Prayer Book and “Series One” of the Alternative Services)
– the English Missal translations
– the Monastic Breviary (1961)
– the Monastic Diurnal (last printing 1963)
– “The Anglican Breviary (1955), a translation of the office of Pius X”
He concludes by commenting that:
“In any corporate reception of Anglican Patrimony, the Roman congregations would have much work to do, doctrinally and liturgically, if they were to extract and secure the finest materials.” BUR, Source I
LUN Language of the Liturgy (AV and BCP)
“It is probable that most Anglicans, when asked about our patrimony, would mention liturgy first. Largely they might be thinking of the Authorised Version [AV] of the Bible, 1611, and the Book of Common Prayer [BCP] 1662. In both cases the language would be in mind, not the Bible itself nor the Rite of the Liturgy.
The distinctive characteristic of the AV is in its English language translation of the original texts. It stands in its own right on the literary merit of its translation. We should also note that, in terms of the many English translations of the Bible, it ranks as one of the best in terms of accuracy and faithfulness to the original texts.
Likewise with the BCP 1662, it is primarily the language which is of such good value in our Anglican patrimony. Cranmer is credited with much of this, yet there were many others who also contributed. The Psalter is by Miles Coverdale. The General Thanksgiving is a very fine example of sound theology, beautiful devotion and literary merit. … It was composed by Edward Reynolds [1599-1676].” LUN, Source I
EDW A Distinctive Way of Being Christian (3 essential elements)
“The Book of Common Prayer defines the Anglican way of being Christian, with three essential elements:”
- Sunday Eucharist
- Daily Office
- ‘private’ prayer of quiet and meditation
DUF The Book of Common Prayer of 1549 has often been seen as a product of the Preservation of the Catholic essence of the Ecclesia Anglicana, a Revised Sarum Use
“The Anglo-Catholic tradition has looked to the Reformation period as a period of providential preservation of the Catholic essence of the Ecclesia Anglicana, which then over the course of history was able to be recovered, expanded, made more explicit. So it’s a story of continuity preserved in the midst of turmoil and in that story the Book of Common Prayer has played a very important role, particularly the first Prayer Book, the 1549 Prayer Book, which was viewed as a pretty good stab at producing … a revised Sarum rite.”
“My own first boss was a historian called Clifford Dugmore and his most celebrated book was called ‘The Mass and the English Reformers’ and it was an attempt to demonstrate that the classical English reformers, and especially Cranmer, had derived their Eucharistic theology direct from the Fathers and not, it wasn’t mediated via the continental Reformation; so it’s a genuinely English, patristic distillation, and so he viewed the Eucharistic theology, even of people like Ridley or Hooper, as in important ways a distinctive English, reformed Catholic product.”
Professor Duffy himself, however, relativises this Anglo-Catholic tradition and, along with a “cluster of other historians”, has challenged the “whole account of the origins of Anglicanism”, emphasising the “disruptive and discontinuous element in the English Reformation”.
MACC Catholic elements retained by Cranmer for reasons of decency and order
“There was nothing of the via media between Catholicism and Protestantism in Cranmer’s plans” states Professor Diarmaid MacCullough, maintaining that the “point at issue … was not whether or not the Church of England should retain a Catholic character, but whether or not remnants of the Catholic past could be redirected to Protestant ends, in order to preserve order, decency and hierarchy”.
SAG Some fine elements of the Eucharistic rite
- Prayer of Humble Access
- The Comfortable Words
- The Peace brought forward before the Eucharistic Prayer
According to Sagovsky, the integration of these into an Ordinariate Eucharistic liturgy “would represent trivial gestures towards the Anglican patrimony”.
BUR Embellishment of the Ordinary Form with Anglican musical elements
“Anglican Patrimony must mean at least the inclusion of certain prayers. … Mark Woodruff reminds us that it is more than that: it includes, at the very least,
- a musical solemnisation by way of a skilled and integrated use of hymnody. …
- Hymns have been used to supplement inadequate eucharistic texts (‘Wherefore, O Father’), to teach eucharistic theology (‘And now, O Father, mindful’), and to induce reverence and reduce conversation amongst congregations queuing for communion (‘Let all mortal flesh keep silence’).
- Hymns have done duty for propers – metrical psalms, seasonal and scriptural texts –
- and been used to achieve the trumpets and timpani feel of a grand liturgy where there are no grand resources: ‘Hail thee, festival day’, ‘Jesus Christ is risen today’, ‘Lo! He comes with clouds descending’.
- To this must be added the congregational rendering of the Ordinary: the Martin Shaw Gloria and the Merbecke Creed have been a very Anglican way of doing things …
- What we have nearly lost – and in my view must urgently recover – is an engagement with plainsong, the plainsong Ordinary of the Mass, some simple plainsong propers, some of the more obvious treasures – the Advent Prose, the Lent Prose, the plainsong passion on Good Friday, the Easter Sequence, the Prayer Book Litany at Rogationtide.” BUR, Source II
BUR Question of the Extraordinary Form in English or the Sarum Use
“The proposition is this: though it would be foolhardy to major on the Extraordinary Form in English or to judge prematurely whether the Sarum Use should be the particular variant of the Extraordinary Form, at least in England, there needs to be some scope – some liturgical opportunity – an abbey or a cathedral – where all this can be tested. There is no hurry here: … a more measured approach to liturgical variety is necessary: only with that measured approach will it become clear what future there might be – or should be – for the Extraordinary Form in English in general and the Sarum Use in particular.” BUR, Source II
NIC The Anglicanorum Coetibus liturgical commission propose an Ordinariate Eucharistic Liturgy embodying a Marriage between elements of pre-Reformation liturgy and features of the Prayer Book
“The setting up of the Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham (altogether freed from State supervision and united with Rome) created just the conditions in which substantial elements of the English Liturgy of the pre-Reformation period could be married with those features of the Prayer Book that still held the affection of many, together with the best products of Roman rite revision and its Church of England counterpart. The result may be considered the sort of Eucharistic Order Cranmer might well have established had he been doctrinally orthodox (and lived in the twentieth century).” NIC, Source IIc
SAG Insistence on Communion in both kinds
“More significant would be an insistence on communion in both kinds from elements newly consecrated …” and the “communion of priest and people from one cup”.
SAG Morning and Evening Prayer from the Book of Common Prayer
- These are a “priceless treasure”
- It is a “characteristically Anglican pattern of daily prayer”
- It provides “access to a treasury of Anglican chant and Anglican choral settings”
- Other integral elements are:
- Coverdale’s translation of the psalms
- Cranmer’s collects
- Prayers for the monarch and the royal family
BUR Divine Office – the Latin Breviary versus the Anglican, Prayer Book tradition
“The Divine Office exists to meet the needs of solo recitation – whether the solitary cleric or the lay oblate – and of monastic communities. It also exists to meet the needs of other congregations – the small gathering of the weekday faithful and the larger, more occasional groups that may gather for Sunday Vespers or Cathedral Evensong. If we divide these two groups into, on the one hand, the professional religious and, on the other, the laity, it is self-evident that the Latin Breviary tradition provides more adequately for the former and the Anglican, Prayer Book tradition for the latter. It ought also to be obvious that it is the second group that is impoverished if we lose the corporate Office tradition of the Book of Common Prayer.” BUR, Source II
WUE Cardinal Wuerl asserts that Anglican liturgy is solely for the Celebration of the Eucharist
(apparently in contradiction of the general assumption that Anglican liturgies would involve all aspects of liturgy – my comment)
… “the question of liturgical usage: my understanding right now is that for the Anglican Use parishes and the use of the Book of Divine Worship, that is solely for the celebration of the Eucharistic liturgy. There are not Anglican usage books and rituals for all the other sacraments and I don’t envision that that’s envisioned here as well”.
SAG Integration of Anglican Sacramental Liturgies into Mass
“Since Anglican Pastoral Offices have been re-written to be celebrated within a eucharistic context, it should be possible to integrate Anglican liturgies for baptism, marriage and funerals into Roman Catholic eucharistic liturgies.”
BUR Preserving Anglican tradition weddings, funerals and ministry to the sick
“Weddings and funerals are a different matter. The congregations here are often not regular churchgoers and, as with the modern Lord’s Prayer, it is a profound mistake to undermine what is still vestigially present within the public culture in traditional form. For that reason one would hope that a version of the Prayer Book Marriage and Burial Services would endure. The Series I forms, the light reworking of the 1928 Prayer Book material, have been reauthorized at every stage and here, at least, is the basis for something to preserve Anglican Patrimony within an Ordinariate dispensation. Something similar might be said about ministry to the sick: only an insensitive pastor would read something novel to dying Doris after a lifetime of Prayer Book Communions.” BUR, Source II
BUR Some directions in which the liturgical working party is heading
“No one wishes to see the disappearance of the Coverdale Psalter. Everyone seems keen to make sure that that gem of Anglican practice, Evensong, is available to the Ordinariates, to enrich the Catholic Church. There is an expectation too that, in England, something like the marriage and funeral liturgies, broadly as revised in 1928, and reappearing as ‘Series One’, should be available to the Ordinariate. These beautiful liturgies are so in-grained that, along with Evensong, they will be a powerful tool of outreach and evangelism, in a context where something at least of Anglican Patrimony is to do with the way pastoral work is done in neighbourhoods and amidst communities. There is also an enormous wealth of English spiritual writing, hardly explored as yet in the liturgical life of the Catholic Church, which may enrich a more distinctively English Calendar. …
- I think we can assume that distinct liturgical provision for the Ordinariates will be almost entirely in traditional language. That heads off the emerging difficulty of more than one idiom of contemporary liturgical English in the Catholic Church.
- I think too that we can assume that there will be an interim stage, when material from the Divine Office and for the marriage and funeral liturgies will be further tried and tested, with the expectation that Congregation for Divine Worship will substantially endorse and make permanent what is being done.
- I think we can assume too that the infrastructure of Calendar and Lectionary – in respect of the Lectionary perhaps a bit closer to the Roman Rite than that in the Book of Divine Worship, which is essentially the Episcopalian one.
I think we can assume too that the Initiation rites – Baptism and Confirmation – and the rites of Ordination will be those of the Roman Rite. These are important, unitive moments and none of the corresponding rites from the Anglican Communion can adequately convey the understanding of what it is to belong to, and be an ordained minister within, the full Communion of the Catholic Church.” BUR, Source III
BUR Proposed texts – some reflexions on the Mass
“… the first tranche of texts submitted by the working party incorporated substantial elements from the Use of Sarum. Imagine liturgical history, so the conceit goes, had the emerging vernaculars of the Renaissance period not been vehicles of theological polemic. Imagine how things would have emerged had Dr Cranmer been a loyal servant of the Church, the Annibale Bugnini of his age. At worst, this conceit is a harmless game. At best, it might yet lead to the emergence of a fine Ordinariate eucharistic rite, including, after five hundred years’ torpor, some of the jewels of traditional Catholicism as found in the Use of Sarum.”
(… “Surely something should be built on the close co-relation of the contemporary language Eucharist in Common Worship with the Mass of Pope Paul VI. As became clear, however, the very similarity of eucharistic orders would lead to muddle and … cacophony. … It was decided also that the place of the Anglican and English Missals tradition, particularly in relation to North America and Australia, needed further study and consideration.”) BUR, Source III
EDW Domestic Approach to Christian Corporate Life (Lay Participation / Biblical Literacy)
This finds expression in:
- The Prayer Book tradition of worship
- The refounding of the Walsingham shrine
“The Prayer Book itself, at least in its central 1549 English – 1928 American (not to forget the 1962 Canadian) editions, is the linchpin of a parish-based ascetical system which, while it has the Eucharist at its center, augments and thereby buttresses the center with the Daily Office, The Office itself is, both in spirit and historically, more the descendant of the parochial and cathedral offices of the middle ages than of the monastic offices, more inherently suited to the participation of lay people than the clerically-oriented offices of the Roman breviary. This greater accessibility – together with well-framed lectionaries – has been a major contributor to genuine biblical literacy amongst Anglicans. The Eucharistic lectionary, which is essentially the Medieval one, provides the depth of reading Scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation … The Daily Office lectionary provides the breadth by covering virtually the whole Bible every year.”
SAG Elements of Anglican practice which would be difficult to integrate: 1) the Commemoration of Anglican saints
… “the liturgical commemoration of Anglican saints like Andrewes or Herbert, Ken or Keble, even though each of them would have seen their faith as an expression of authentic Catholicism”
BUR The Ordinariate Calendar
“It would be eccentric to suggest … that Anglican worthies, for whom no canonisation process has been possible, should survive into an Ordinariate Calendar. Such heroes of the faith may inspire intercessions (Wilberforce and slavery), or spiritual reading (from an anthology such as Love’s Redeeming Work) but they have not been raised to the altars. There is, nonetheless, not only a national Calendar to be observed – and the Catholic National Calendar is there for that – but also an Ordinariate one, the Calendar of the local church. At this point we have time to look at only one topic and to ask the question: is there a continuing place for the Calendar of the Book of Common Prayer? By that one does not mean, so much, the timing of St Matthias or St Thomas as the way the Sundays of the year of Ordinary Time are treated and how they interact with feasts of apostles. At least for the Divine Office, the incomparable treasury of Prayer Book Collects ought to be preserved, together with such by-ways of the year as the ‘-gesima’ Sundays and the Pentecost Octave. It is surely Anglican Patrimony too for Sunday congregations to continue to encounter red letter saints’ days on what would otherwise be green Sundays. Might not the Ordinariate be a place where some reining-back on the 1970s reforms might be field tested, as part of the ongoing ‘reform of the reform’? I say this not out of nostalgia for the old but with hope for the revitalisation of the new: how often do modern Catholics bump into ‘B-list’ apostles?” BUR, Source II
SAG Elements of Anglican practice which would be difficult to integrate: 2) the participation of laity in decision-making (including about liturgy)
“The constitution of the Governing Councils of the Ordinariate sounds depressingly clerical. To be faithful to their ‘Anglican patrimony’ the Pastoral Councils of the Personal Ordinariate would have to give real power to the laity.”
EDW Lay participation in Church Governance
- Anglicans have a longer experience with lay participation than the Latin Rite
- Its continuation is anticipated in Anglicanorum Coetibus, especially Art. X, §4
(My note: Fr. David Ackerman, vicar of Sherborne and student of Canon Law, in particular as it concerns the Ordinariates, refers expressly to the specific “collaborative” roles of the Governing Council and Pastoral Councils as elements of “Anglican canonical patrimony” which are to be found in Anglicanorum Coetibus. Source: ACK)
ROW Barriers to the Reunification of Anglo-Catholics have been cultural, not doctrinal
“From my personal experience I would say that for many Anglo-Catholics the barriers to full communion with the See of Peter have tended to be primarily cultural rather than doctrinal. They have been reluctant to seek full membership of the Catholic Church because of a not unreasonable belief that they would have to abandon whole elements of their Anglican cultural heritage.”
EDW Anglicanism part of Anglophone European Culture, Anglo-American Civilisation
… “the Anglican heritage … is a part of the general environment of anglophone European culture, especially its literary culture. The two most influential monuments of English literature are The Book of Common Prayer (1549ff.) and the Authorized Version of the Bible (1611), commonly known as the King James Version, which in very real ways have formed not just the cadence but the content of Western civilization in its Anglo-American form.”
ROW Many Anglo-Catholics find Post-Conciliar Roman Rite parish liturgies banal
Anglo-Catholics are uncomfortable with:
- The banality of post-Conciliar liturgy
- The “oikish translation of the Mass” (Fr. Digby Anderson)
Anglicans can bring with them better translations of the Mass.
ROW There is an affinity between Anglo-Catholic approaches to Liturgy and the Pope’s own Liturgical Theology
The Pope is concerned about :
- “parish tea party” liturgy
- “pastoral pragmatism”
- “emotional primitivism”
- “utility music”
EDW Musical Tradition
“The Anglican musical tradition” is both broad-based and consistent with the ethos of the Anglican tradition of common worship, of which it is an integral component.
- Hymnody is a notable element (from late Patristic to contemporary, Gregorian monophony to modern polyphony)
- Most Anglican congregations are notable for the quality and natural willingness of the concerted singing of the members.
GAL Collegiate Churches (and the Musical Patrimony)
“One thing that … would be very useful for the Anglican Ordinary to consider is the Canon on chapters of canons in collegiate churches … The Diocesan Bishop can create a collegiate church, and since the Anglican Ordinary is equivalent to a Diocesan Bishop in law, my guess is that he can create a collegiate church … There are (collegiate churches) in Anglicanism; we all know … Westminster Abbey and … St. George’s, Windsor; … these are extraordinary churches in the Anglican Communion with an extraordinarily rich and solemn liturgical set of celebrations. That’s what collegiate churches under the law are to do, as Canon 503 states, ‘to celebrate the more solemn liturgical functions’.
Beyond that they would have a secondary importance, They would provide a nice honour for distinguished long-serving members of the Anglican Ordinariate. I’m guessing that only one or two of the canons would need to be residentiary.
Another thing that a collegiate church could provide: music is integral to solemn worship and so music is understood in a collegiate church. If the Anglican patrimony is really to be preserved, its musical patrimony has to be a large part of what’s being preserved. …
I would just suggest that if that collegiate church option is taken, part of the formation, the musical formation of Anglican seminarians, could be at that collegiate church.”
ROW Beauty and Love
(Professor Rowland quotes Benedict XVI, as Cardinal Ratzinger, from “The Feast of Faith”:
“The Church … must arouse the voice of the cosmos and, by glorifying the Creator, elicit the glory of the Cosmos itself, making it also glorious, habitable and beloved … beauty and love form the true consolation of the world, bringing it as near as possible to the world of the resurrection.
… The Church must maintain high standards, she must be a place where beauty can be at home; she must be a place where beauty can be at home; she must lead the struggle for that ‘spiritualisation’ without which the world becomes ‘the first circle of hell’.”)
“I think it is fair to say that Cardinal Ratzinger would have been more at home in an Oxbridge college chapel at Evensong than in the average suburban parish with people singing songs written by Marty Haugen. Being forced to listen to ‘Gather Us In’ is my idea of landing in the ‘first circle of hell’.”
ROW Anglicans appreciate Beauty and Ritual
“… Anglicans do have an appreciation of the importance of beauty and the understanding of ritual and … can bring with them a great liturgical tradition. … Aidan Nichols OP calls this particular gift of the Anglican Communion ‘a high sacral register of liturgical language’. The Evensong liturgy is perhaps the best example of the particular gift, but there are many others.”
KIR The “Aesthetic Adventure” of Anglo-Catholicism
Fr. Geoffrey Kirk describes what brought him to Anglicanism, and what has nurtured him, as an “aesthetic adventure”, including:
- the religious poetry of the seventeenth century: Donne, Herbert, Traherne, Crashaw
- brilliant preachers like Lancelot Andrewes, John Tillotson
- “the musty old volumes of the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology in Pusey House Library”
- architecture and the visual arts (“the liturgical context … was as important as the liturgy”): Butterfield, Holman Hunt; Temple Moore’s St. Wilfrid’s, Harrogate; the “Rhineland Romanesque” of St. Aidan’s, Leeds; Comper’s baldacchino in Pusey House Chapel; the “golden splendour” of St. Mary’s, Wellingborough
- the music: Byrd, Purcell, S.S. Wesley, the late Victorians and Edwardians (Darke, Wood, Stanford)
NIC An appreciation of intrinsic art and architecture in the liturgical context
“Unlike Roman Catholicism, Anglo-Catholicism in the twentieth century has been largely impervious to the seductions of architectural Modernism, and its iconographical and musicological equivalents, owing to the apologetic concern to demonstrate continuity with the Christian past by using neo-mediaeval forms or perhaps neo-Baroque ones. One could think here of the patronage given by twentieth century Catholic Anglicans to such influential church designers as John Ninian Comper (whose work synthesises mediaeval, palaeo-Christian and Renaissance features) and (for the Neo-Baroque) Martin Travers.” NIC, Source IIb
EDW Characteristics of the Anglican Mind – Golden Moderation
“The Anglican mind (also referred to as the Anglican Way or the Anglican ethos) was a variety within the species of the Christian mind.”
(It has) “a distinct flavour to its mixture of aesthetic, moral and intellectual styles – a sort of golden moderation”.
“The Anglican mind, in its highest state of development, was supple without being flaccid, liberal yet disciplined, conservative yet open. It recognised that the opposite of protestant is not catholic, but corrupt, and that the opposite of catholic is not protestant, but sectarian. Even at its most polemical, it sought more reconciliation with its opponents than triumph over them.”
LUN The Via Media
“Anglicans like to see ourselves as the synthesis between opposites; a bridge; a force for reconciliation; an expression of ‘glorious comprehensiveness’.” LUN, Source II
ROW The Anglican Culture of Polite Disagreement
“I think that Anglicans do tend to be renowned for their highly developed culture of polite disagreement.”
EDW Anglican habit of Inclusiveness
… “the treasury accumulated through the Anglican habit of drawing from the different ethoi
which are comprehended under the roof of the great oikos of the People of God … is now made available as a resource for the whole of the Church in communion with the successor of Peter”.
LUN The Inclusive Approach
(as opposed to “subjective, liberal, pluralist” and “objective, fundamentalist, exclusive”)
“the integrated, inclusive, synthesising, catholic approach. This accepts the external, given nature of revelation, of faith as the gift of God, and seeks to appropriate it, using one’s critical faculties, so that it does not forever remain external to the individual, but permeates his or her life.” LUN, Source II
LUN Anglican Pragmatism
Lunn quotes More and Cross, “Anglicanism”, p. xxxiii:
“If the Anglican differs from the Romanist or the radical Protestant, it is because more definitely and consciously than either, he justified his belief by the pragmatic test of experience, namely: “Does it work?” It is not that he rejects authority for an unchecked individualism; he sees that his personal experience is no more than a fragment of the larger experience of mankind, and must be controlled at every step by that accumulation of wisdom which is the voice of the Church. What he rejects is the Absolute of authority based on a priori theories of infallibility. Rather, looking without and within, he asks the consequence of believing or not believing. How does acceptance of the dogma of the Incarnation work out in practice? Does faith bring with it any proof of its objective validity?” LUN, Source II
Acknowledging “the Englishness of the English gentleman”:
… “certain peoples … each have a genius for some different aspect of moral, religious or political life”.
ROW The Idea of the Gentleman
Professor Rowland quotes Fr. Digby Anderson:
- “Anglicans can bring with them … the idea of the gentleman, including the cult of understatement and self-deprecation and traditional manners.”
(my comment – e.g. theo-centric liturgy rather than ego-centric liturgy)
NEWM Some elements of the Idea of the Gentleman
For the cardinal himself this was an important factor:
… “He (the gentleman) makes light of favors while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except when compelled, never defends himself by a mere retort … we should ever conduct ourselves towards our enemy as if he were one day to be our friend … ”.
AND Facit: The English gentleman according to Fr. Digby Anderson (and others)
- Newman’s gentlemanliness and his Catholicism were hardly distinguishable
- ‘the gentleman’ is not tied to class and birth – it is the character that matters
- the gentleman has some of the best ‘aristocratic’ values without being aristocratic:
- morally courageous
- “the aspects of the gentleman were moral, aesthetic and Christian”
- “there never was but one perfect gentleman since the world began … and He was the Son of God” (Caroline Moore quoting nineteenth century comments)
- “St Paul in his speeches and letters is the very model of a gentleman” (idem)
- the virtues of the heart of our Lord in Holy week: courtesy and patient consideration (Archbishop Goodier)
- self-deprecation, understatement, diffidence, lack of public emotion, irony, humour, the cult of amateurishness
- “Manners are incarnational. They are embodied, to do with real conduct, whereas the universalist formulae of human rights are abstract and disincarnate.”
- Newman praised the practice of local particularistic love above the ‘absurd’ talk of “comprehensive affection … loving all men … that is merely to talk of love”
- “humility, yet another quality of the gentleman and of our religion”
- “even the aesthetic aspect of manners is not to be dismissed. Traditional Anglican Catholics wore good vestments, took care of their church buildings and the sacred objects in them and cultivated good music”
- “The moral sensibility associated with the idea of the gentleman, the cult of understatement and self-deprecation and traditional manners would be a rather nice present (… ‘on their way to Rome’).”
… “I think that a high regard for the chivalrous disposition is another element of the Anglican patrimony, perhaps related to the idea of the gentleman. The story of St. George is incomprehensible without chivalry. Chivalry is the opposite of blowing one’s own trumpet. It’s about using one’s social standing to defend the weak and going out on a limb for Christ”.
EDW A characteristic theological method and temper (scriptural, traditional and patristic)
- “A characteristic theological method and temper, which is, at its best, at once scriptural, traditional, and patristic.”
- …“a well-educated clergy, theology has been done largely within the pastoral context. The greatest of Anglican theologians were pastors (Hooker. Keble, Newman, Ramsey)”.
- Anglican theological method is more Benedictine than Jesuit
- scriptural foundations
- Scripture as presented by the fathers
- living tradition of the Church
- “We expect this method to find its perfection in the Magisterium. … It is only in communion with the Magisterium that it can be perfected.”
- Cf. Augustine of Hippo: “In essentials, unity; in doubtful things, liberty; in all things, charity”
ROW Some elements of the Treasury of Anglican Theology
- Gothic Anglicanism compared to baroque Catholicism:
“While the baroque hedgehog was burrowing his way through a thick undergrowth of scholastic maxims, the gothic fox was sunning himself on the meadows and musing over whether the countenance divine ever shined forth upon the clouded hills of England.”
- Strong interest in Patristic Theology:
“The Anglo-Catholic theologians retained a strong interest in Patristic theology and thus avoided the extremes of baroque-era scholasticism.”
– Newman was the heir to this heritage
- Caroline Divines (in awe of Eternal Beauty, Sanctity and Love)
“Some of the most beautiful reflections on patristic thought to be found in the English language”
– Professor Rowland quotes Marianne Dorman herself quoting Dean Church:
… “the doctrine of the Incarnation meant for the Caroline Divines living in ‘adoration, self-surrender and blessing, and in awe and joy of welcoming the Presence of the Eternal Beauty, the Eternal Sanctity and the Eternal Love, the sacrifice and reconciliation of the world”
– Dorman: this was “as much a sensuous experience as spiritual”
- The verses of the metaphysical poets:
“… English language office books where poetry from John Donne and George Herbert has been included”
- Cambridge Platonists (Beauty)
– “fighting materialism and rationalism – two intellectual disorders which continue to be influential today”
– Beauty was important for both Augustine and Plato
– Beauty is described as a ‘transcendental’ alongside goodness, truth and sometimes unity. Humans tend to have a primary transcendental (cf. Benedict Groeschel)
– Thomas Aquinas’ primary transcendental = truth
– St Francis of Assisi and Bonaventura = goodness
– St Augustine = beauty
– “…the Anglican patrimony which in so many ways is strongest on the transcendental of beauty”
NIC “The threefold cord” – Scripture, Tradition and Reason
“And this brings me to the fuller picture of theological method associated with the classical Anglican ‘threefold cord’ or ‘three-legged stool’ … In this trio, not duo, of elements, Scripture and Tradition do not walk alone. They are accompanied by reason. The threefold cord, so defined, is especially well represented in the golden age of Stuart Anglicanism, as may be seen from the fine anthology edited by Paul Elmer More and Frank Leslie Cross, Anglicanism. The Thought and Practice of the Church of England illustrated from the Religious Literature of the Seventeenth Century. It is mirrored in the Oxford Movement. And it is equally present in such modern Anglo-Catholic theologians as Austin Farrer and Eric Mascall, for whom Scripture and Tradition in their unity must be married with human reason if they are to draw from the wells of revelation full refreshment for heart and mind. A late twentieth-century survey summed up: ‘Anglican divines on the whole regard Scripture interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvation’ …” NIC, Source IIb
LUN Anglican use of Reason to ask Questions about the Faith with the intent of Deepening Understanding not Doubting
“Therefore, orthodox Anglicans have developed a particular use of reason. We know that, when asked the reason for the hope that we all have (cf. I Peter 3:15) we must always be prepared and have our answer ready. But we know that it is insufficient for us to answer – because the Church teaches us so, or because it is stated in our Anglican formularies. Our faith is God-given, but we need to be able to explain what it means to us – faith seeks understanding, as St Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, reminds us. Thus orthodox Anglicans ask many questions with the intent of deepening our understanding of our God-given faith. When we ask many questions about the resurrection of the body, it is not because we doubt the resurrection of the body, but in order to deepen our understanding of our firm belief in the resurrection of the body. Our questioning is thus the very antithesis of doubt. We feel that this fundamental difference between questioning and doubting is not always appreciated by our Roman Catholic friends. When Roman Catholic bishops tell us Anglicans that we must learn to trust them, we sometimes feel that they are telling us not to ask so many questions.” LUN, Source II
LUN The understanding of sacraments among Anglo-Catholics
… “right Form, right Matter, right Intention, right Minister, right Candidate, indelible character, ex opere operato, true sacraments actually convey what they signify, and are pledges of God’s grace – in short, the Anglican formularies witness to a common understanding with the RC Church over the nature of sacraments. …
Notwithstanding the clarity of the Anglican formularies on the nature of sacraments, there is a strand among Anglican writers which is incompatible with the teaching of the Church. This strand sees sacraments as … useful for the wellbeing of the Church, but not essential.
This fundamental difference of understanding of the nature of sacraments indicates a fundamental difference as to how God relates to us, and works with us to carry out his saving work in this world. A failure to acknowledge this difference is a source of misunderstanding in our ecumenical relationships. Those Anglicans seeking to enter the Ordinariate may reasonably be expected to have grasped the difference.” LUN, Source III
LUN Because of their indelible nature, Sacraments of Initiation or Holy Orders once received cannot be re-administered
“On the basis of the above described common understanding Anglicans believe that Confirmation, Eucharist, Orders, Penance and Anointing are valid when celebrated by Anglicans in accordance with the above Formularies and understanding. Thus, given the common understanding of the nature of sacraments, there are, officially, contrary judgements of the validity of sacraments celebrated by Anglicans. …
Given these two conscientious positions, both presuming the sacramental teaching of the Catholic Church, yet reaching different judgements on Anglican practice of this teaching, the challenge is simple – how do we regularize the different conscientious positions without in any way requiring either party to deny their conscience? Any solution which requires either position to deny its conscience is manifestly unacceptable.
… both different conscientious positions accept the full teaching of the Church. Thus a mutual recognition of each other’s conscientious positions seems to be a fair answer. This would require Anglican clergy to be ‘regularized’ in order to be recognized as having valid Holy Orders in the Roman Catholic Church. In this way the official position of the Roman Catholic Church would be recognized and accommodated by the Anglicans being ‘regularized’.” LUN, Source III
WAR The role of Anglican Moral Theology within the Catholic Church
“Anglican Moral Theology in an Ordinariate is not a Moral Theology that is going to give different answers to contested questions. We have to accept, as Anglicans who are considering this offer, this proposal, that communion with the See of Peter will mean that there will not be a different answer generated within our patrimony and within our Ordinariate to questions about artificial contraception, to questions about divorce and remarriage, to questions about homosexuality, and so forth. …
However, there are particular ways in which Anglicanism, both providentially and accidentally, has developed that will enable the Anglican contribution to Moral Theology to be one that enriches the practice of Moral Theology in the wider Church and that particularly touches on themes that are particularly close to what one might call the ‘Benedictine’ reform, the ‘Benedictine’ outlook, on what the Church needs for spiritual, and liturgical and moral revival; themes which are very important in the programme of the current Pope.” WAR, Source II
WAR 3 core contributions of Anglican Moral Theology
“Three things then:
- the virtue of religion;
- a refusal to separate in pastoral work Moral Theology and a theology that helps people to aspire to a deeper spiritual life;
- and, thirdly, an emphasis in approaching moral obligation that comes out of a tradition that has not always been hemmed in by a formal canonistic structure.
Those three things are the core contributions that Anglican Moral Theology might make in an Ordinariate.” WAR, Source II
WAR The Virtue of Religion (unlike Aquinas, who saw religion as a duty, a debt)
There is “a consistent tradition in Anglican Moral Theology of seeing religion as an orientating moral vale that leads to beatitude. … The High Church tradition in Anglicanism, inheriting that orientation from Hooker, does … very strongly see religion not as something that is perfunctorily discharged as an element of justice but, rather, as something that orientates the whole moral life. Because of that, attention to the liturgical contribution that Ordinariates might make is important, in particular because the Ordinariates in their worship have a good opportunity to contribute to the ‘Benedictine’ agenda of re-sacralisation and re-enchantment in liturgical worship.” WAR, Source II
WAR The Anglican discipline of Confession
“The second contribution that Anglicans can make in particular to the practice of Moral Theology is our discipline of confession and the way in which a clear distinction has not always been made … in Anglican pastoral practice between Moral Theology on the one hand and spiritual and ascetic theology on the other.” …
17th century “Anglicans in their devotional writing … do not make a distinction, such as was made clearly in Counter-Reformation Moral Theology, between what was necessary to avoid sin and what was necessary to live morally.
If you are looking at current practice, that Anglican refusal to separate dealing with sin from growing closer to God is a valuable one.” WAR, Source II
WAR The Anglican reliance on Custom rather than Law
Kenneth Kirk “sees a difference of method in saying that Anglicanism has relied, in what it binds people’s consciences with, much more on custom rather than law. …
Recent events in the Roman Catholic Church have emphasised the inadequacy of assuming that having a codified Canon Law … is necessarily the best way of inculcating the moral and legal framework that a Church needs in order to have its spiritual mission fulfilled in the best possible way. … Because of what has happened, and also because of having a Pope who is so emphatically concerned with historical theology, the way in which canon law plays a part in the Latin rite may well need to be included in this whole issue of the hermeneutic of continuity which emphasises historical and spiritual and liturgical practice, over and above a positivistic approach to law.
And if Anglicans can show that a moral ethic based on custom is one that does not necessarily mean disorder, then that will be a service which we can pay to the Universal Church.” WAR, Source II
ROW Understanding the importance of Social Hierarchies and of Christian Constitutional Monarchy
… “a Christian understanding of the importance of social hierarchies where social privileges are linked to social duties, and an understanding of the value of a Christian constitutional monarchy”.
NOR Pastoral Practice and Evangelical Responsibility for All
“… the heart of the Anglican patrimony in the C of E. It is not in the end about liturgy or married clergy or robed choirs… It is about pastoral practice and the evangelical responsibility legally laid upon us for the entire population of a patch of ground.” NOR, Source I
NOR Spiritual life and Salvation of every person in the Geographical Parish
Since the seventeenth century, “not just in the eyes of the church, but in the eyes of the state, the Parish Priest had a responsibility for his people; for their well-being, their conformity, their behaviour, their salvation. … Still today, in a secularized, post-modern culture, The Church of England feels very deeply that same sense of responsibility for the spiritual life of the nation. …Quite simply, I have had delegated to me the Church’s responsibility for the salvation of every man, woman and child who lives within the boundaries of the parish. … That’s how we as Anglican clergy live our lives. That’s what we’re resourced and trained to do.” NOR, Source II
NOR How our Resources and Practice enable us to realize the Cure of the Souls of a whole Community
“We put that pastoral and evangelic responsibility into practice in a number of ways.
- First, through the Parish Church, the building. … It is a physical, concrete, permanent reminder of the presence of Jesus Christ within a community. It is sacred space which we offer freely to the parish as a place of prayer. The building, in its history and beauty, evangelises. …
- Then second, the pastoral offices. Funerals, weddings and baptisms give us a passport into the lives of ordinary people that politicians, social workers and the medical authorities would die for. Through them we can draw close to people and pastor them at the most significant and vulnerable times of their lives. … We are the Church of England … . Those who have nowhere else to go come to us.
- And then third, schools and education. … Most Anglican schools serve whole communities rather than merely the members of their own churches. … And today such schools provide us with invaluable opportunities for ministry. …
- And a fourth way … is through care for the poor and vulnerable. … Over the years it has been the Anglo-Catholics who have committed more time and resource than anyone else to work with the poor. … For us, they are at the heart of our ministry. And that is a very clear expression of our Anglican patrimony, which has at its core a love for every single man, woman and child who lives on this island.” NOR, Source II
ELS Anglican patrimony a mindset, not a set of historical advantages
“Anglican patrimony should be about a mindset, not a set of historical advantages. We take a methodology and a philosophy which would be about forging links with organizations and individuals which would form a bridge between the established Roman Catholic structures and the remnants of our structures and networks. We should be able to think imaginatively about occasional offices and how we pastor people and use the opportunities for God’s mission.
To take some examples, the really important thing about our funeral ministry is not the, say, 80 funerals we officiate at during the year, but the way we visit and assist the bereaved and follow up with remembrance services in November. The really important thing about our evangelistic ministry is not the Alpha course we offered for 20 people last year, bur the sensitive and thorough preparation, delivery and follow up, which included an away-day at a monastery or retreat centre.
And the important thing about our ministry in our church schools is not, in the end, the endless energy expended over governance or appointments but our unconditional care of the children: surely this would be replicated in an Ordinariate, perhaps with a new Scout pack or Air Training Corps ministry.”
NEWT Anglican Patrimony can differ from country to country
“The contexts in which the various Ordinariates will be erected are very different from each other. The situation in the United States and Canada is very different from that which we experience in the United Kingdom. That means that our patrimony which we bring … may well in fact vary from place to place: for example, it’s often remarked in England that one important aspect of Anglican patrimony is the pastoral care of everyone who lives in a particular parish, irrespective of whether they attend church or whether they even describe themselves in any way that is recognisably Christian. This gives to many Anglicans a particular emphasis for mission, but this I think is Church of England patrimony and does not in fact relate very well, translate very well into Anglican practice in other parts of the world.”
EDW A distinctive tradition of Pastoral Care is typically Anglican
- Traditionally small size of parishes
- “Spiritual direction, counselling and confession are more pastoral than judicial, more personal, practical and empirical”
- Within the framework provided by the Book of Common Prayer – a parochial system of pastoral care takes place, with initiation, catechesis, formation in morals and ascetics, nourishment in prayer and sacraments, with clear roles for clergy and laity
LUN Size of Parish Communities
“Most Church of England parish churches are like the local corner shop, where there can be a personal relationship between the shop owner and the customer, time for a chat, and a certain ‘clubbiness’. In comparison, Roman Catholic churches in England are often not quite so local, and like the supermarket, more impersonal. …
You don’t usually get lost in the Church of England, you’re not anonymous. There is a high priest-people ratio. In worship the people know the priest and the priest knows the people. Perhaps this leads to a personality cult – the singer, not the song. The pastoral dictum – I know my own and my own know me – applies. This has developed into mutual expectations (e.g. the time a priest will spend with individual penitents). The priest might spend more time dealing with a particular problem rather than quoting textbook answers.
… from a census of churches in 1979 [MARC Europe]:
- 87.1% of Church of England churches had congregations below 150.
- 17% of Roman Catholic churches had congregations below 150.” LUN, Source II
DUF Problem of preserving the Anglican identity without Establishment and Royal Supremacy
“Anglo-Catholicism has been shaped by the Royal Supremacy in a way it’s not always been comfortable with, but which has given it a standing, given it legal protection, and kept it Anglican; … the obligation to be catholic within the constraints of a Protestant national church have been, it seems to me, crucial in giving Anglo-Catholicism its “Anglo” dimension, its English dimension.
Whether it would remain itself if the constraints of establishment were removed from it and the constraints of the enforced coexistence with other kinds of Anglicanism, seems to me very doubtful.” …
To an extent “what I identify as Anglicanism could not exist outside the establishment, for example Choral Evensong. Choral Evensong was preserved within Anglicanism largely by the embedding of the national church within the cathedral structure, within the Royal Chapels, within the universities. It would have disappeared and did disappear altogether outside these institutions for two hundred years and only emerged as an aspect of parish life in the nineteenth century. Could Choral Evensong
Survive in a minority uniate church, to use a rough and inaccurate term, within Roman Catholicism? Where would be the infrastructure that would make it possible to go on celebrating that rite?”
EDW Married clergy
- There have been 450 years of married clergy in Anglicanism
- Anglicanorum Coetibus allows for the case-by-case derogation of the discipline of celibacy
LUN Provision for married clergy is part of a developing understanding in the Church
“The association of a vocation to Holy Orders with a vocation to celibacy is one of the most highly sensitive issues at this time. The long Anglican experience of married clergy is very rich in evidence to assist in considering this issue. In very recent times, the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales has begun to share this Anglican experience which, it seems, has been found helpful.
The provision in Anglicanorum Coetibus for married Anglican clergy who enter into full communion with Rome to be admitted to the ordained presbyterate of the Roman Catholic Church needs to be seen against the above background and in the light of developing understanding throughout the Church.” LUN, Source I
LUN Ordinariate territorial structures should be coterminous with those of the Roman Catholic Church
“To facilitate integration, the territorial boundaries of the Ordinariate should be coterminous with the existing territorial structures of the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales, e.g. an Ordinariate territorially coterminous with the Province of Westminster and/or Birmingham and/or Cardiff and/or Liverpool and/or Southwark. Deaneries could then be coterminous with the dioceses.” LUN, Source I
LUN Lunn identifies a Vocation of Proclamation of the Gospel to the English people
1. The ordinariate is a society whose purpose is the greater glory of God, particularly through the proclamation of the Gospel to the English people.
2. The people of England urgently need a common, shared, united witness and proclamation of the Gospel by all Christians in this land. This Ordinariate is part of a process to achieve such unity, making special provision ‘until all Christians can gather together in one community’. …
3. The Ordinariate seeks to realise the principle – ‘The Anglican Church united not absorbed’ …
Any suggestion of ‘parallel Churches’ is to be avoided. Integration does not mean a stifling uniformity but rather a rich diversity deriving from the several Christian cultures of our land, which are ‘a treasure to be shared’. [Anglicanorum Coetibus III] LUN, Source I
LUN Vocation of the Ordinariate towards the Church of England and other Christians
“One of the specific functions of the Ordinariate is to facilitate the wider sharing of all that is of good value in our Anglican patrimony. The Ordinariate is no place for disaffected Anglicans. Far from turning our backs on the Church of England, the Ordinariate should see it as a specific responsibility to work for the reunion of all Anglicans with the Roman Apostolic See. How then might the basic ecumenical principle – never do separately what we can reasonably do together –be applied in these particular circumstances?
We also have a responsibility to all our fellow Christians in England, in the Free Churches and beyond. It seems that there is a case for thinking more widely in terms of all that is of good value in our English Christian patrimony.” LUN, Source I
LUN Projects of outreach to the various Christian traditions in England and Wales
“Regarding liturgical language, in 2011 a new English translation of the Roman Rite is due to come into use. There is considerable debate about its merits. It seems fair to say that, as of now, we have not yet produced an English Liturgical Language of Excellence for the twenty-first century. …
There is a multiplicity of hymn books at this time. Roman Catholic hymn books increasingly include Anglican and other hymns. To facilitate integration and to reach out to the people of England, a project to produce an English Hymn Book with all that is best and long-lasting from the different ecclesial traditions of our land is worth considering.
Similarly, there are many English devotions of lasting value from the different traditions which could be brought together in a collection for use by the faithful.
… an English Ordinariate would be well placed to assist in preparing a local catechism for the people of England, sure and authentically based on the reference text of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, incorporating ‘those aspects of the Anglican patrimony that are of particular value’ and relevant to the catechism format.
…there is no shortage of scope for developing projects which should facilitate the coming together of what is of good value in the different traditions of our land; and thus more effectively reaching out to all people of good will in our land.” LUN, Source I
LIST OF SOURCES
AC Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus, (Setting up Personal Ordinariates for groups Of Anglicans to be received into the Catholic Church and to maintain aspects of the Anglican patrimony), November 5, 2009
ACK Fr. David Ackerman, Vicar of Sherborne in the Diocese of Gloucester, Student of Canon Law, Source: “Canon Law – A Comparative Study”, Talk given at Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, Pusey House, Oxford, April 24, 2010 (as delivered)
AND Fr. Digby Anderson, Contributor to Anglo-Catholic magazine “New Directions”, Source: “English Gentlemen”, New Directions, October 2008
B16 Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger), Sources: I. Ecumenical Address, Cologne, 2005; II. Address to Catholic Bishops of England and Wales, Oscott College, September 2010
BUR Andrew Burnham, until end of 2010 Anglican Bishop of Ebbsfleet, from 2011 Monsignor, Prelate of Honour and Assistant to the Ordinary, Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, Sources: I. “”Heaven and Earth in Little Space. The Re-enchantment of Liturgy”, Canterbury Press, Norwich, 2010; II. “An Exploration of Anglican Patrimony: The Liturgical Heritage”, paper presented to Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, Pusey House, Oxford, November 2010; III. “What is Anglican Liturgical Patrimony?”, distributed at Anglican Use Society conference, Arlington, TX, July 2011
CBCEW Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales, Source: Statement on the Establishment in England and Wales of a Personal Ordinariate, January 11, 2011
DiN Daniel Cardinal DiNardo, Archbishop of Galveston-Houston, Source: Comment at USCCB meeting, Seattle, June 15, 2011
DUF Professor Eamon Duffy, Professor of History of Christianity at Cambridge University, Fellow of Magdalene College, Source: “Anglican Patrimony: A Catholic Historian’s Perspective”, Talk given at Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, Pusey House, Oxford, April 24, 2010, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010
EDW The Revd Samuel Edwards, Priest of the Traditional Anglican Communion, Source: (writing together with the Revd Dr. David Ousley and Michael LaRue), “What is Anglican Patrimony?”, paper published on “Anglo-Catholic” blog and addressed to Cardinal Wuerl via Fr. Scott Hurd, June 28, 2011
EIS Martha Eischen from Pennsylvania, USA, Anglo-Catholic senior citizen, recently received into the Roman Catholic Church, Source: “Anglican Patrimony or the Anglican Way”, VirtueOnline, July 29, 2011
ELS Fr. Simon Ellis, until beginning of 2011 Anglican Vicar of St. Laurence, Long Eaton, Priest of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, Source: “No doctrine of our own”, New Directions, February 2010
ELT Bishop Peter Elliott, Auxiliary Bishop of Melbourne, Australia, former Anglican, CDF delegate for the implementation of Anglicanorum Coetibus in Australia, Source: “What is this ‘Personal Ordinariate’?”, Address given to Forward in Faith Australia, February 13, 2010
GAL Dwayne Gallus, Canon Lawyer, The Saint Joseph Foundation, San Antonio, Texas, Vice-president for Canonical affairs, Source: Anglicanorum Coetibus meeting, Our Lady of the Atonement, San Antonio, Texas, December 2009
GEL Fr. Peter Geldard, Catholic Chaplain, University of Kent in Canterbury, Source: “What is the Ordinariate? – Origins and Opportunities”, Talk given at Catholic League pilgrimage, Bruges, September 2010
GHI Fr. Gianfranco Ghirlanda, S.J., Rector of Pontifical Gregorian University, Source: “The Significance of the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus”, November 2009, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010
KAS Walter Cardinal Kasper, Former President of the Pontifical Council for Christian Unity, Source: “That they all may be One” (pp. 67-8), quoted in LUN I
KIR Fr. Geoffrey Kirk, Vicar of St. Stephen’s, Lewisham, Founder and general secretary of Forward in Faith, Source: “The Way we live now”, New Directions, November 2009
LEV William Cardinal Levada, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, lead dicastery for Anglicanorum Coetibus
LUN The Revd Brooke Kingsmill-Lunn, Former priest director of the Catholic League, Source: I. “Towards an English Ordinariate”! – Study paper I; II. “Anglican Patrimony” – Study paper II; III. “Sacraments and the Ordinariate” – Study paper III
LG Lumen Gentium, Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church
MACC Diarmaid MacCullough, Anglican historian, Source: “The Myth of the English Reformation”, Journal of British Studies 30 (1991), Quoted in NIC, source I
NEWM Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman, Oxford movement, Catholic convert, Founder of the Oratory in England, Source: quoted in ROW
NEWT Mgr Keith Newton, Protonotary Apostolic, Ordinary of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham since Jan. 15, 2011, Former Anglican Bishop of Richborough (until end of 2010), Source: Talk given at Anglican Use Society conference, Arlington, TX, July 2010
NIC Fr. Aidan Nichols, O.P., Former John Paul II Memorial Visiting Lecturer, Oxford University, Scholar on theology of Hans Urs von Balthasar, Joseph Ratzinger and Anglicanism, Source: I. “Anglican Uniatism: A Personal View”, July 2006, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010; II. “The Ordinariates, The Pope and the Liturgy”, Address to Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, “Becoming One”, Mississaugau, ON, Canada, March 24-26, 2011, a. Part One: “The theological context of the Ordinariates”, b. Part Two: “The place of Anglicanorum Coetibus in Pope Benedict’s vision”, c. Part Three: “Liturgical dimensions of Anglicanorum Coetibus”
NOR Fr. Philip North, Rector, Old St. Pancras Team Ministry, London, Former Administrator of the Anglican Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham, Sources: I. Letter to the Editor of New Directions, December 2009; II. “The Church of England: Parochial and Pastoral”, Talk given at Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, Pusey House, Oxford, April 24, 2010, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010
PP Pastoral Provision, Document outlining the Pastoral Provision issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, July 22, 1980
ROW Professor Tracey Rowland, Dean of John Paul II Institute for Marriage and Family in Melbourne, Australia, Source: “The Anglican Patrimony”, Address given at Conference for those exploring joining a Personal Ordinariate. Melbourne, June 8, 2011
SAG The Revd Professor Nicholas Sagovsky, Former Canon Theologian of Westminster Abbey, Member of ARCIC II and III, Source: Centro, News from the Anglican Centre in Rome, Volume 17 No 1, April 2011
WAR Canon Dr. Robin Ward, Principal of the Anglican seminary, St. Stephen’s House, Oxford, Former Honorary Canon Theologian of Rochester Cathedral, Sources: I. “The Sinews of Behemoth”, Sermon given at Pusey House, Oxford, on the occasion of the125th Anniversary of foundation, October 31, 2009, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010; II. “The Anglican tradition of Moral Theology”, Talk given at Anglicanorum Coetibus conference, Pusey House, Oxford, April 24, 2010, reproduced in “Anglicans and Catholics in Communion – Patrimony, Unity, Mission”, The Messenger of the Catholic League, No. 292, April – August 2010
WUE Donald Cardinal Wuerl, Archbishop of Washington D.C., CDF delegate for the implementation of Anglicanorum Coetibus in the US, Source: Progress Report to the USCCB on the implementation of Anglicanorum Coetibus, Seattle, June 15, 2011
Compiler of this Thesaurus:
David Murphy, baptized Anglican, Guild of Servants of the Sanctuary, 1965 – 1967, received into Catholic Church, April 1969, member of Franciscan Order of Friars Minor (OFM) from 1977 to 1981, studies in Catholic Theology, Münster, Germany, and Franciscan Study Centre, Canterbury, currently residing in Germany, teacher of Catholic Religious Education and Modern Languages at Technical High School
© David Murphy and the authors of the quotes